Sipunculidea | Golfingiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 590 m (Ref. 415). Tropical
Northwest Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean, Antarctic and Arctic Ocean: Iberian Peninsula and Belize. Tropical and subtropical.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 3.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 415)
Found in rock crevices, mangrove root mats and mud, along subtidal and intertidal zones in marine and brackish environments (Ref. 415). Known to be an osconformer, which is unaffected by large and repeated changes in salinity, but is known to be affected by increases in water temperature (Ref. 86624). Known as a benthic species (Ref. 85346). Intertidal to 590 m in rock crevices; mangrove roots mats and mud (Ref. 415); 34 to 500 m both in Ionian and North Aegean Sea (Ref. 775). Infaunal, burrows (Ref. 116123). This species is collected from mangrove and Thalassia root mats (Ref. 86591).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés. 2005. (Ref. 415)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Common namesSynonymsPredatorsReproductionMaturitySpawningFecundityEggsEgg development
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 3.4 - 22, mean 8.5 (based on 1568 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)