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References used for species in the Family Nymphonidae
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[ n = 98 ] 
Allen, M.J., T. Mikel, D.. Cadien, J.E. Kalman, E.T. Jarvis, K.C. Schiff, D.W. Diehl, S.L. Moore, S. Walther, G. Deets, C. Cash, S. Watts, D.J. Pondella, V. Raco-Rands, C. Thomas, R. Gartman, L. Sabin, W. Power, A. Groce, J. Armstrong, 2007 Appendix F - Glossary and Nomenclature. [Accessed 31/05/2017].
Arango, C.P., 2003 Sea spiders (Pycnogonida, Arthropoda) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia: new species, new records and ecological annotations. Journal of Natural History 37:2723-2772.
Arango, C.P., 2002 Morphological phylogenetics of the sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Organisms Diversity and Evolution 2(2):119-126.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Atkinson, E.G. and J.W. Wacasey, 1976 Caloric values of zoobenthos and phytobenthos from the Canadian Arctic. Department of the Environment, Fishieries and Marine Service, Technical Report 632:1-23.
Bamber, R.N., 2009 Sea-spiders. p. 307-312 Wehrtmann, I.S.; Cortés, J. 2009. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538pp.
Bamber, R.N., 2004 Pycnogonids (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from French Cruises to Melanesia. Zootaxa 551:1-27.
Bamber, R.N., 2007 Pycnogonida of New Caledonia. pp. 255-257 In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Bamber, R.N., 1983 Some deep-water pycnogonids from the Northeast Atalntic. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 77:65-74.
Bamber, R.N., 2004 Pycnogonids (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida) from Taiwan, with description of 3 new species. Zootaxa 458:1-12.
Bamber, R.N. and A. El Nagar, 2007 Pycnobase: Pycnogonida World Database. Available online at
Bamber, R.N. and M.H. Thurston, 1995 The deep-water pycnogonids (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida) of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 115:117-162.
Bamber, R.N. and M.H. Thurston, 1993 Deep water pycnogonids of the Cape Verde Slope. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 73:837-867.
Bamber, R.N., N.J. Mitchell and T.J. Ferrero, 2001 Rediscovery of Nymphon gerlachei Giltay, 1935 (Arthropoda, Pycnogonida). Antarc. Sci. 13(3):237-239.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Carpenter, K.E. (ed.), 1898 On Pantopoda collected by Mr. W.S. Bruce in the neighbourhood of Franz-Josef land, 1896 - 1897. Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Zoology) 24:626-634.
Child, C.A., 1994 Deep-sea Pycnogonida from the temperate west coast of the United States. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 556:1-23.
Child, C.A., 1997 Some deep-sea Pycnogonida from the Argentine slope and basin. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 110 (1):128-142.
Child, C.A., 1998 The marine fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (sea spiders). NIWA Biodiversity Memoire 109. National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA). Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p. + Figure 2A-G, 3A-F, 4, 5.
Child, C.A., 1995 Antarctic and subantarctic Pycnogonida. II. The family Nymphonidae. Antarctic Research (Series 69, Biology of the Antarctic Seas) 24:1-68.
Child, C.A., 1995 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands XI. Collections from the Aleutians and other Bering Sea islands, Alaska. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 569:1-33.
Child, C.A., 1992 Shallow-water Pycnogonida of Gulf of Mexico. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 9:1-86. Florida Department Natural Resources, Bureau of Marine Resources, Jan. 1992.
Child, C.A., 2009 Pycnogonida and Xiphosura (Cheliceriformes) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 815-820 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Child, C.A., 1996 The Pycnogonida types of William A. Hilton. II. The remaining undescribed species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109(4):677-686.
Child, C.A., 1982 Deep-sea Pycnogonida from the North and South Atlantic Basins. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 349:1-54.
Child, C.A., 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, III: Recent Smithsonian-Philippine Expeditions. Smithsonian Contribution to Zoology No. 468. Smithsonian Instition Press. Washington, DC. 32 p. + Figure 1 -3.
Child, C.A., 1991 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, IX. A shallow-water Guam survey, 1984. Proceedings of Biological Society of Washington 104:138-146.
Child, C.A., 2002 Some Pycnogonida from the Easter (Hasa) disctrict of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Natural History 36:1805-1821.
Child, C.A., 1982 Pycnogonida from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize. In Rützler, K. and Macintyr, I. G. 1982. The Atlantic Barrier Reef Ecosystem at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, I: Structure and Communities. Smithsonian Contributions to Marine Science 12:355-380. 539pp.
Child, C.A., 2004 Some Pycnogonida from the Western Caribbean with descriptions of three new species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 74(1):143-161.
Child, C.A., 1988 Pycnogonida from Aldabra Atoll. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 8:45-78.
Crammer, G.J., 1982 Nymphon (Pycnogonida) in the eastern Arctic. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Luton College of Higher Education.
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
Dahl, L., 2002 Temporal, spatial and substrate dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna. Helgol Mar Res 56:159-168.
de Kluijver, M.J. and S.S. Ingalsuo, 2005 Pycnogonida: Microbenthos of the North Sea. Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam.[accessed13/01/06].
Dietz, L., J.S. Domel, F. Leese, T. Lehmann and R.R. Melzer, 2018 Feeding ecology in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida): what do we know? Frontiers in Zoology 15(1):7.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Giltay, L., 1935 Pycnogonides. Résultas du voyage de la Belgica en 1897 au 1899. Rapports Scientifiques des Résultas de la voyage de la Belgica en 1897 au 1899. Zoologie. Tomes 1-16.
Giltay, L., 1928 Note sur les pycnogonides de la Belgique. Bulletin Annuel de la Société d'Entomologie Belgique 68:193-229.
Harms, J., 1993 Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresunters 47:1-34.
Heard, J.R., 2005 Nymphon gracile. Sea spider. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 17/11/2005]. [accessed09/01/06].
Hedgpeth, J.W., 1963 Pycnogonids of the North American Arctic. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 20 (50):1315-1348.
Hedgpeth, J.W., 1947 On the evolutionary significance of the Pycnogonida. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 106(18):1-54.
Helfer, H. and E. Schlottke, 1935 Pantapoda. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Tierreichs, 5(4)(2):1-314.
Hibberd, T. and K. Moore, 2009 Field identification guide to Heard Island and McDonald Islands benthic invertebrates: a guide for scientific observers aboard fishing vessels. Kingston, Tas. : Australian Antarctic Division and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia), 152 p.
Hily, C. and M. Bouteille, 1999 Modifications of the specific diversity and feeding guilds in an intertidal sediment colonized by an eelgrass meadow (Zostera marina) (Brittany, France). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la vie/ Life Sciences 322(12):1121-1131.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
Jennings, S., J. Lancaster, A. Woolmer and J. Cotter, 1999 Distribution, diversity and abundance of epibenthic fauna in the North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 79:385-399.
King, P.E., 1973 Pycnogonids. Hutchinson of London. London, UK. 144 p.
King, P.E. and G.B. Crapp, 1971 Littoral pycnogonids of the British Isles. Field Studies. 3:455-458.
Krapp, F., 2007 Pycnogonids (updating van der Land). Personal communication October 2007.
Kühne, S. and E. Rachor, 1996 The macrofauna of a stony sand area in the German Bight (North Sea). Helgoländer Meeresunters 50:433-452.
Lamb, A., D. Gibbs and C. Gibbs, 2011 Strait of Georgia biodiversity in relation to bull kelp abundance. Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, 111p.
León, T.M., 2001 A new species of Ammothea (Pycnogonida) and other pycnogonids from Livingston Island and surrounding waters (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). Antarc. Sci. 13 (2):144-149.
Macdonald, T.A., B.J. Burd, V.I. Macdonald and A. van Roodselaar, 2010 Taxonomic and feeding guild classification for the marine benthic macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874:62p., 2050
Meinert, F., 1899 Pycnogonida. The Danish Ingolf Expedition 3(1):1-71+ 5 plates.
Miers, E.J., 1875 Descriptions of three additional species of Crustacea from Kerguelen's land and Crozet island with remarks upon the genus Paramoera. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 16(ser.4):115-118.
Miers, E.J., 1875 Descriptions of new species of Crustacea collected at Kerguelen's Island by Rev. A.E. Eaton. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 16(ser.4):73-76.
Miyazaki, K., 2002 On the shape of foregut lumen in sea spiders (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 82:1037-1038.
Müller, H.-G., 1993 World catalogue and bibliography of the recent Pycnogonida. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Laboratory for Tropical Ecosystems Research & Information Service: Wetzlar. 388 p.
Munilla, T., 2000 A new species of Ammothea and other pycnogonids from around Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Antarc. Sci. 12:47-51.
Munilla, T. and A. Soler, 2008 Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters: zoogeographic implications. Antarc. Sci. 13 pp.
Munilla, T. and A.S. Membrives, 2009 Check-list of the pycnogonids from Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters: zoogeographic implications. Antarc. Sci. 21(2):99-111.
Murray, J., 1896 On the deep and shallow-water marine fauna of the Kerguelen region of the Great Southern Ocean. Challenger Expedition 343-500 p.
Nakamura, K. and C.A. Child, 1988 Pycnogonida of the Western Pacific Islands, Iv. On some species from the Ryukyu Island. Proceedings of the biological Society of Washington 101:662-670.
OBIS, 2015 Nymphon adenopus Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Nymphon apicatum Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Nymphon fortunatum Stock, 1997. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Nymphon novaecaledoniae Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Nymphon parum Stock, 1991. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Nymphon spinifex Stock, 1997. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 6/25/2015].
Piepenburg, D., N.V. Chernova, C.F. von Dorrien, J. Gutt, A.V. Neyelov, E. Rachor, L. Saldanha and M.K. Schmid, 1996 Megabenthic communities in the waters around Svalbard. Polar Biol. 16:431-446.
Raiskii, A.K. and E.P. Turpaeva, 2006 Deep-sea pycnogonids from the North Atlantic their distribution in the world ocean. Okeanologiya 46(1):63-68.
Rauschert, M. and W.E. Arntz, 2015 Antarctic macrobenthos: a field guide of the invertebrates living at the Antarctic seafloor. Arntz & Rauschert Selbstverlag, Wurster Nordseekueste, Germany, 143p.
Reef Life Survey, 2012 Reef Life Survey.
Roberts, D., 1981 Pycnogonids from Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland. Irish Naturalists' Journal (Belfast) 20(5):189-192.
Ruppert, E.E., R.S. Fox and R.D. Barnes, 2004 Invertebrate Zoology. A functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning learning, Inc. 990 p.
Sirenko, B., S. Denisenko, H. Deubel and E. Rachor, 2004 Deep water communities of the Laptev Sea and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute Exploration of the Fauna of the Seas 54(62):28-73.
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Neonymphon caecum Stock. [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Nymphon aemulum Stock. [Accessed 08/04/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Nymphon diabolus Child. [Accessed 01/16/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Nymphon macrum Wilson. [Accessed 08/03/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Nymphon surinamense Stock, 1974. [Accessed 08/03/2016].
Southern Ocean Mollusc Database (SOMBASE), 2011 British Antarctic Survey, SOMBASE. Accessed through GBIF data portal,, 2011-07-15.
Stephensen, K., 1933 Pycnogonida, The Godthaab Expedition, 1928. Meddelelser om Grønland 79:1-46.
Stock, J.H., 1994 Indo-West Pacific Pycnogonida collected by some major oceanographic expiditions. p. 24. In Child, C. A. (ed.) The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Pycnogonida (Sea Spiders). NIWA Bioderversity Memior 109. National Institute of Water and atmospheric Research (NIWA). )Washington, D.C. 20530, USA. 71 p.
Stock, J.H., 1978 Abyssal Pycnogonida from the north eastern Atlantic Basin, Part I. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 19:397-413.
Stock, J.H., 1971 Pcynogonides récoltés durant la campagne Noratlante et Atlantique Nord. Bulletin Zoölogisch Museum (Universiteit van Amsterdam) 2(4):25-28.
Stock, J.H., 1981 Abyssal Pycnogonida from the Walvis Basin, Southern Atlantic. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 21:453-471.
Stock, J.H., 1963 Israel South Red Sea Expedition 1962, Report no. 3: Pycnogonida. Bulletin of Sea Fisheries Research (Sta. Haifa.) 35:27-34.
Turpaeva, E.P., 2005 Bathyal pycnogonids (pycnogonida) from the northern Atlantic Ocean and the southern Norwegian Sea. Zoologieskij Zurnal 84(5):541-554.
Tzetlin, A.B., V.O. Mokievsky, A.N. Melnikov, M.V. Saphonov, T.G. Simdyanov and I.E. Ivanov, 1997 Fauna associated with detached kelp in different types of subtidal habitats of the White Sea. Hydrobiologia 355:91-100.
Wacasey, J.W., 1975 Biological productivity of the Southern Beaufort Sea: zoobenthic studies. Beaufort Sea Technical Report 12b, 42p.
Wacasey, J.W. and E.G. Atkinson, 1987 Energy values of marine benthic invertebrates from the Canadian Arctic. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 39:243-250.
Walker, A.J.M. and E.I.S. Rees, 1980 Benthic ecology of Dublin Bay in relation to sludge dumping. Ir. Fish. Invest. Ser. B. 22:1-59.
Zettler, M.L. and F. Gosselck, 2006 Benthic assessment of marine areas of particular ecological importance within the German Baltic Sea EEZ. Progress in Marine Conservation in Europe, Chapter 8:141-156.
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