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Ursus maritimus   Phipps, 1774

polar bear
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Ursus maritimus
Picture by FAO

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Mammalia | Carnivora | Ursidae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Demersal.  Polar

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic: Ursus maritimus maritimus: Canada, Northwest Territories, Baffin Island, Greenland, Svalbard, Russia, Labrador, Newfoundland, Quebec, Iceland, Norway; Ursus maritimus marinus: Russia, Beaufort Sea, Alaska, Bering Sea, Kamchatka, Kuril Island, Sea of Okhotsk, Japan (Ref. 1522).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 250 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); 200 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 800.0 kg (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 800.0 kg

Short description Morphology

Fur color: white, yellow, grey, or almost brown, depending on season and light conditions; black skin, including nose and lips; plantigrade; claws not retractable.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Generally associated with ice, but they have been swimming at sea many kilometers away from the nearest land. Feeds on ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals, and rarely walruses and white whales; sometimes eat arctic cod and other forms of animal and vegetable matter (Ref. 1394). Generally associated with ice, but they have been swimming at sea many kilometers away from the nearest land. Feeds on ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals, and rarely walruses and white whales; sometimes eat arctic cod (Ref. 1394), charr, sculpin, and plants (Ref. 81152). They display migration patterns and spend time on the ice for hunting, a positive energy state, and move to their terrestrial habitat, a negative energy state, when the ice melts. Earlier ice break-ups show earlier arrival of polar bears ashore (Ref. 93189).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

  Vulnerable (VU) (A3c)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: species profile; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown