Bivalvia | Veneroida | Cardiidae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 137 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 99323); common length : 80.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348); max. published weight: 500.0 kg (Ref. 81839)
Benthic; depth range 0 - 35 m (Ref. 75831)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 23°C - 30°C (Ref. 102835); 38°N - 37°S, 38°E - 170°W
Indo-Pacific: from Comoros, to as far east as Kiribati, north to Japan and Hawaii, and south to Australia.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
It is white and fan-shaped with deep radiating ribs.
Known to be the largest bivalve mollusks that exist. Exploited for its meat and shell, this species has recently become nearly extinct within an important part of its range, due to over collecting. Trials of aquaculture under progress for the restocking of reefs and local farming (Ref. 348). Facultative planktotroph. It has an established symbiotic relationship with a dinoflagellate algae (zooxanthellae) which allows them to survive. It ingests the algae at an early stage and the latter propagates in the gut (Ref. 100719). Becomes simultaneous hermaphrodite in its later years. Spawning is seasonal, based on its northern and southern limits of distribution (Ref. 100714).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial
FAO(Aquaculture: production; | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Very high vulnerability (82 of 100)