Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Child, C.A. 1998. (Ref. 9)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 0 - 410 m (Ref. 9)
Climate / Range
Southwest Atlantic, Antarctic Indian Ocean and South Pacific: South Atlantic Islands.
Maximum depth from Ref. 87394. Found in the subtidal, low intertidal (Ref. 1456), and other low tide mark (Ref. 9); under stones or on Melobesia (Ref. 87643). Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models