Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Clark, W.C. 1972. (Ref. 151)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 0 - 245 m (Ref. 87394)
Climate / Range
Southwest Pacific and Antarctic.
Depth range based on Crozet Island (Ref. 87394). Found on holdfast fauna, hydroids and algae in pool (Ref. 87643). Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models