Malacostraca | Decapoda
Hill, M., R. Baker, G. Broad, P.J. Chandler, G.H. Coop, J. Ellis, D. Jones, C. Hoyland, I. Laing, M. Longshaw, N. Moore, D. Parrott, D. Pearman, C. Preston, R.M. Smith and R. Waters. 2005. (Ref. 1314)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 2.0 cm CW male/unsexed; (Ref. 79470); max. reported age: 2 years (Ref. 109497)
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 43 m (Ref. 108755)
Climate / Range
Eastern Pacific and Western Atlantic: North America, Canada to Brazil.
Euryhaline. Prefers brackish waters, found in estuaries or quasi-freshwater lakes. Lives in muddy or sandy substrates, as well as on oyster reefs, vegetation, logs and manmade debris (Ref. 108786). Also on rubble (Ref. 97531). Omnivorous scavenger (Ref. 108786). Life cycle: It undergoes four (4) zoeal stages and one (1) megalopa before turning into adult (Refs. 79470, 109437, 109442, 109461). Mating behavior: Precopulatory courtship ritual is common (through olfactory and tactile cues); usually indirect sperm transfer (Ref. 833). Spawning occurs from July to August in northern latitudes, April to September in mid latitudes, and April to November in southern latitudes (Ref. 109493). Females burrow in the sand to lay eggs prior to copulation, brooding takes 15-19 days (Ref. 109502).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models