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Rhinella marina   (Linnaeus, 1758)

marine toad

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Rhinella marina   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Amphibia | Anura | Bufonidae

Environment / Climate / Range

Others; freshwater; brackish.  Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Pacific and Atlantic: South and Central America.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86255)

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Adults range from 15 to 23 cm in length. This species has a bufotoxin that is a defense mechanism for marine toads. This causes irritation to humans and animals especially when in contact with the eyes and other mucous membranes (Ref. 86255). This is an omnivorous species. Its diet is composed of insects like beetles, ants, and earwigs, vegetation, small birds, other amphibians like toads, frogs, lizards, small mammals and snakes (Ref. 86255). Mating season is during spring, particularly late March. Breeding is from April to September wherein two strings of eggs are released by the female on the water surface. It takes 3 days before hatching occurs. From small tadpoles, they metamorphose to small toads in 45 to 50 days (Ref. 86255).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Mating season is during spring, particularly late March. Breeding is from April to September wherein two strings of eggs are released by the female on the water surface. It takes 3 days before hatching occurs. From small tadpoles, they metamorphose to small toads in 45 to 50 days.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 2003. (Ref. 538)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

   

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Other

Human uses


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More information

Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.2 - 29.1, mean 27.7 (based on 264 cells; Ref. 115970).
Price category (Ref. 80766)