Amphibia | Anura
Integrated Taxonomic Information System. 2003. (Ref. 538)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 86255)
Others; freshwater; brackish
Climate / Range
Pacific and Atlantic: South and Central America.
Adults range from 15 to 23 cm in length. This species has a bufotoxin that is a defense mechanism for marine toads. This causes irritation to humans and animals especially when in contact with the eyes and other mucous membranes (Ref. 86255). This is an omnivorous species. Its diet is composed of insects like beetles, ants, and earwigs, vegetation, small birds, other amphibians like toads, frogs, lizards, small mammals and snakes (Ref. 86255). Mating season is during spring, particularly late March. Breeding is from April to September wherein two strings of eggs are released by the female on the water surface. It takes 3 days before hatching occurs. From small tadpoles, they metamorphose to small toads in 45 to 50 days (Ref. 86255).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models