Bivalvia | Veneroida
Carpenter, K.E. (ed.). 2002. (Ref. 271)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 271); max. reported age: 10 years (Ref. 8702)
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 124 m (Ref. 104339), usually 0 - 2 m (Ref. 104339)
Climate / Range
Tropical; ? - 15°C (Ref. 104336); 31°N - 17°N, 98°W - 81°W
Western Atlantic: The Gulf of Mexico from Campeche to northwest Florida. Introduced to the Atlantic coast of North America (east coast of Florida to Chesapeake Bay and to the Hudson River). Northeast Atlantic: Introduced in Belgium and Poland. Tropical to temperate.
Shell oval, heavy, very thick. Hinge with lateral teeth transversally striated. Pallial sinus reduced. Umbones anterior, pointing inward and in anterior direction. Periostracum strong and smooth. Colour: externally dirt white, internally glossy white with slight blue-grey tinge; periostracum grey-brown (Ref. 271).
It has a total length of 5 cm (Ref. 271). Maximum depth range from Ref. 104365. Subtidal (Ref. 104487). It is found infaunal in sandy mud, in very low salinity brackish water (Ref. 271). Habitats have high water turbidity. Found in soft substrates which are a mixture of sand, mud and vegetation (Ref. 104487). In salt marsh (Ref. 104365). A non-selective filter-feeder which turns substantial quantities of plant detritus and phytoplankton into clam biomass. Also obtains nutrition from sediments via direct ingestion or by feeding on bacteria. Predators include fish, crabs, gastropods and ducks (Ref. 104240). Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833). Spawning is continuous throughout the year (Ref. 104339).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models