Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others. Tropical; 39°N - 38°S (Ref. 96995)
Indo-Pacific and Southern Atlantic. Tropical and subtropical.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 78.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 850.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 6.24 cm; tarsus: 2.82 cm; wing: 21.87 cm.
Total Length: 30 to 35 cm; Wingspan: 104 cm (Ref. 8812). Length: 78 cm; Wingspan: 107 cm (Ref. 91362). Found <500 km offshore (Ref. 356). Generally pelagic during non-breeding season. Loosely colonial. Solitary at sea (Ref. 96995). Sometimes trail ships (Ref. 91362). Exhibits deep-diving plunge (Ref. 356). Annual breeding cycle (Ref. 96995).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Annual breeding cycle.
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low vulnerability (25 of 100)