Mammalia | Carnivora
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Bathydemersal; depth range 0 - 6000 m (Ref. 356). Boreal; 90°N - 0°S, 97°W - 180°E
Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic: North Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean, Baffin Island, Magdalen Island, Russia, Canada (Ref. 1394). Pagophilus groenlandicus groenlandicus: Newfoundland, Jan Mayen (Norway), Baffin Bay, Greenland Sea, Nova Scotia, Greenland, Iceland; and vagrants in Virginia, Scotland, Germany, France; Pagophilus groenlandicus oceanicus: Barents Sea, Russia, White Sea (Ref. 1522).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 190 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); 180 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 135.0 kg (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 135.0 kg
Live chiefly in pack ice, but can be found away from it in summer. Feeds on a variety of crustaceans and open-water fishes during migration, and switch to several varieties of bottom dwelling fishes in summer on the northern grounds (Ref. 1394). Live chiefly in pack ice, but can be found away from it in summer (Ref. 1394). Adults are highly gregarious; young seasls tend to be solitary. Typically forms aggregations when feeding (Ref. 117964). Feeds on a variety of crustaceans and open-water fishes during migration, and switch to several varieties of bottom dwelling fishes in summer on the northern grounds (Ref. 1394).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): -0.9 - 4.1, mean 0.6 (based on 2101 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (54 of 100)