Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Child, C.A. 1998. (Ref. 9)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 3 - 415 m (Ref. 87394)
Climate / Range
Antarctic, Southwest Pacific and Eastern Indian Ocean.
Trunk fully segmented, lateral processes closely spaced, little longer than their diameters, each with slender dorsodistal tubercle except fourth pair which has small bump. Neck moderately long, ocular tubercle and oviger implantations at neck posterior at first lateral processes. Ocular tubercle as tall as basal diameter, eyes very large. Proboscis a short cylinder rounded at tip, without distal setae. Abdomen moderately long, cylindrical, armed with several distal setae. Chelifore large, scape as long as proboscis, with few dorsal and distal setae. Chelae with oval palm about the same length as fingers which have proximal rugosities on the movable finger and larger crenulations on the entire inner surface on the immovable finger. Palm with short distal-pointing setae. Palp short, little longer than proboscis, segments of unequal length; third longest, first little longer than second, fourth slender, subequal to first. Third and fourth segments with distal setae as long or longer than segment diameters. Oviger typical, fifth segment longest, with apophysis. Terminal segment with short curved claw. Legs moderately short, with few lateral and dorsal setae. Tarsus very short, with large sole spine. Propodus short, only slightly curved, with two heel spines and several sole spines, claw short, auxiliaries about 0.7 main claw length (Ref. 9).
Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models