Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 10.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142)
Pelagic; depth range 1 - 200 m (Ref. 110525)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 35°N - 36°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 97142)
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Tropical to subtropical.
Cosmopolitan circumglobal distribution, throughout tropical and subtropical/warm temperate oceans. Paralarvae and juveniles live near and at the surface, often in association with Sargassum weed. Preyed upon by squid, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, and by yellowfin and bigeye tunas, and undoubtedly by many other epipelagic fishes and pelagic birds (Ref. 97142). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models