Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 37.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142)
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 800 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 68°N - 44°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 97142)
Circumglobal in warm and temperate oceanic waters.
Also caught using jigs (Ref. 417) and dip nets (Ref. 275). Medium-sized squid; mantle length up to 300 mm (370 mm only in the northern Pacific Ocean, Nesis 1982, 1987) (Ref. 97142). Oceanic, eurythermal, meso- and epipelagic species that occurs from the surface to 150 m depth and as deep as 4, 000 m. A schooling species frequently observed "flying" above the surface to escape predators in pursuit. Very dense muscular structure and high respiration rates confirm it is a fast-swimming, slow-growing species. Paralarvae are abundant in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, particularly from January to March. Spent females have severely degenerated muscular tissue of head, mantle, fins, as well as missing tentacles, so that they appear almost gelatinous. Prey consists of fishes and squids. Predators include giant red shrimp, fishes, e.g. albacore, yellowfin tuna, lancetfish, swordfish, tiger shark, smooth hammerhead shark, spinner, Frasier’s striped and Risso’s dolphins, toothed whales and fur seals (Ref. 97142). Males mature earlier than females; synchronous oocyte development with high fecundity, i.e., more or less 200,000 eggs (Ref. 97142).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (20 of 100)