Cephalopoda | Octopoda
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 24.9 cm CL male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 120 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 10.0 kg (Ref. 275)
Reef-associated; oceanodromous (Ref. 75927); depth range 0 - 200 m (Ref. 417), usually 0 - 100 m (Ref. 1977)
Climate / Range
Tropical; ? - 7°C (Ref. 275), preferred 26°C (Ref. 107945); 57°N - 38°S, 98°W - 146°E (Ref. 275)
Circumglobal in temperate and tropical seas.
Mantle length at first sexual maturity: 9.5 cm (male); 13.5 cm (female; Ref. 275). Maximum common depth is 150 m in Ref. 75927. Maximum length for male/unsexed from Ref. 114257. Inhabits rocky, sandy and muddy bottoms of the coastline to the edge of the continental shelf (Ref. 2133). Found in intertidal and subtidal areas (Ref. 83938). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Very high vulnerability (78 of 100)