Cephalopoda | Octopoda
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 120 cm male/unsexed; (Ref. ); max. published weight: 6.0 kg (Ref. 81543)
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 113260)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 33°N - 36°S, 30°E - 134°W (Ref. 275)
Indo-Pacific: from eastern Africa to Hawaiian Islands.
Shallow-water benthic species inhabiting coral reefs and found in a variety of substrata (Ref. 81543). Occupies lairs in coral bedrock, live and dead coral heads and excavations in sand and rubble (Ref. 96968). In naturally-occurring holes on rocks or dens (Ref. 81543). Males and females can occupy adjacent dens (Ref. 96968). Juveniles rapidly form homes and defend these against conspecifics (Ref. 105171). Opportunistic predator that predominantly uses tactile foraging methods (Ref. 81543). Reported to pounce and capture crabs. Another feeding strategy involves speculative hunting where an individual uses its interbrachial web to cover and explore with the tips of its arms the coral heads, rocks or clumps of algae (Ref. 105172). Feeds primarily on bivalves, gastropods and xanthid crabs. Employs crypsis in reaction to threat (Ref. 81543). Exhibits diurnal activity (Ref. 105171). Day-active species with higher activity peaks at dusk and dawn (Ref. 96968). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
High to very high vulnerability (72 of 100)