Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Wood, J.B. and C.L. Day. 1998. (Ref. 3722)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 20.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142)
Bathypelagic; depth range 200 - 2000 m (Ref. 97142)
Climate / Range
Circumglobal, from tropical to temperate waters.
Vertical distribution is mesopelagic to bathypelagic (to 2 000 m) during daytime with nocturnal ascent into epipelagic zone. In the eastern North Atlantic, juveniles are
caught from May to September as planktonic vertical migrators. Predators include albatrosses and numerous oceanic fish species, such as tunas, swordfish, dolphin fish, lancetfish, dolphins, toothed whales, including sperm whales and Cuvier’s beaked whales, and Sthenoteuthis squid (Ref. 97142). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models