Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Child, C.A. 1996. (Ref. 2117)
Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Western Atlantic and Pacific Ocean.
Trunk robust, compact, with 2 tall median tubercles about as long as abdomen, each with lateral and posterior spines. Ocular tubercle more than half as long as trunk tubercles. Lateral processes moderately long, separated by less than their diameters, with low dorsodistal and laterodistal spinose tubercles. Abdomen long, distally downcurved, with short proximal, median, and distal spinose tubercles. Proboscis very inflated. Chelifore scapes 2 segmented; first segment very short, second almost 4 times longer, with short median and distal spinose tubercles; chelae bulbous, vestigial. Oviger fifth segment almost as long as fourth; terminal segment tiny, with 2 setae. Legs with many dorsal and lateral spinose tubercles only slightly longer than segment diameters; propodus well curved, with marked heel bearing 3 spines (Ref. 2115, p. 31).
Shallow habitats (Ref. 2115, page 31). Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models