Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Raiskii, A.K. and E.P. Turpaeva. 2006. (Ref. 1844)
Size / Weight / Age
Demersal; depth range 3610 - 4410 m (Ref. 1844)
Climate / Range
Southwest Pacific, Eastern Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean: Azores Island, Greenland, New Zealand and South Africa.
Panoceanic low-latitudinal; able to descend to the lower abyssal zone (Ref. 1844). Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models