Polychaeta | Not assigned
LÃ³pez-Jamar, E., G. GonzÃ¡lez and J. Mejuto. 1986. (Ref. 2778)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7882)
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 4000 m (Ref. 3477)
Climate / Range
Temperate; 27°C - 28°C (Ref. 87155)
Antarctic, Northeast Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Pacific Ocean. Temperate to polar.
Simple, smooth body without any appendages aside from a short chaetae. Its head is short, triangular, and smooth. The species grow up to 15 cm made up of 150 segments, which is divided into two parts, the anterior that is relatively thick, cylindrical and purple or dark red, and the other is the tail region which is more slender and bright red or yellowish in color.
Minimum depth from Ref. 7882. Species' maximum length from the Belgian part of the North Sea (Ref. 7882). Found in estuarine and inshore areas (Ref. 96352). Inhabits muddy bottoms (Refs. 2780, 7882, 96352). Pelagic larvae are present during December, February, and April, whereas settling has been observed in August to October. The settling larvae prefer mud, sand, and high salinities (Ref. 2778). Lives in a spiralled burrow (Ref. 7882). A subsurface deposit-feeder (Refs. 96292, 96352). Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models