Polychaeta | Aciculata
Salazar-Vallejo, S.I. 1996. (Ref. 7866)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 20.3 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111270); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111269); max. reported age: 3 years (Ref. 111266)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Predominantly intertidal, occasionally found subtidally. Adults may be found in a mucous tube, under boulders or on holdfasts of algae (Ref. 111185). Omnivorous, feeding on plant detritus, algae, and sometimes on harpacticoid copepods and amphipods (Ref. 108780). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833). The worms die after their breeding period (Ref. 111269). Also Ref. 111267.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models