Demospongiae | Haplosclerida
Collin, R., M.C. DÃaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. SÃ¡nchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. ValdÃ©s. 2005. (Ref. 415)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; brackish; depth range 1 - 10 m (Ref. 108813)
Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean and Western Central Atlantic.
Massive. Lobate to repent branches with fistules that break off easily. Black externally and internally. Smooth surface with scattered membrane bearing oscules; 0.3 - 0.5 cm in diameter, located on top of volcano-shaped elevations. Brittle to pulpy in consistency (Ref. 415). May appear as thick encrustation, usually partly buried or heavily covered with sediment. Releases black exudate when damaged. Oscules round and irregularly distributed; with thin walls (Ref. 85482).
Very common between coral rubble, in shallow reefs, seagrass beds, and mangroves (Ref. 415). Common on shallow lagoon bottoms; encrusting dead corals or rocks (Ref. 85482). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models