Demospongiae | Poecilosclerida
Environment / Climate / Range
Reef-associated; brackish; depth range 2 - 61 m (Ref. 108813). Tropical
Western Central Atlantic: West and East Africa.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 50.0 cm H male/unsexed; (Ref. 415)
Tubular to globular, solitary or in clusters, thin-walled; 1 - 2 cm, up to 50 cm tall. Large pseudoscule with transparent membrane; 3 - 6 cm wide. Dark wine red to black. The surface is spiny. Tough but compressible. Releases sticky mucus released when squeezed (Ref. 415). Massive crusts no more than 5 cm thick. Low, massive lobate; one or few cups or tubes may arise from a common mass. Surface with single or compound large spine-like conules producing creases or irregular lumps; usually covered by an iridescent whitish dermal membrane. Color varies from black to dark blue to purple or reddish purple with blue tinges. May also be orange to scarlet or cream and rose with cinnamon tones or dark purple fibers with iridescent patches (Ref. 85482).
Reefs, mangrove peat banks, occasionally on roots (Ref. 415). Association: with two algae Ostreobiium constrictum Lucas a Chlorophyta, Acrochetum spongicolum Webervan Bosse, Rhodophyta) (Ref. 415), and an amphipod Leucothoe ubouhu living within the sponging fibers of M. laxissima was found among Belizean specimens (Ref. 82302). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge.
Collin, R., M.C. DÃaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. SÃ¡nchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. ValdÃ©s. 2005. (Ref. 415)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate vulnerability (40 of 100)