Anthozoa | Alcyonacea
Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock and D.M. Opresko. 2003. (Ref. 1663)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 90.0 cm H male/unsexed; (Ref. 865)
Demersal; depth range 15 - 30 m (Ref. 865)
Climate / Range
Eastern Pacific: USA to Mexico.
Colonies are able to survive in some of the most polluted nearshore waters (Ref. 865). It is found on reefs, pipelines, wharfs, and wrecks in depths of 15 to 30 meters (Ref. 865). Members of the class Anthozoa are either gonochoric or hermaphroditic. Mature gametes are shed into the coelenteron and spawned through the mouth. Life cycle: The zygote develops into a planktonic planula larva. Metamorphosis begins with early morphogenesis of tentacles, septa and pharynx before larval settlement on the aboral end (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models