Ascidiacea | Pleurogona
Environment / Climate / Range
Sessile; brackish; depth range 0 - 90 m (Ref. 1603). Temperate; 90°N - 41°S, 180°W - 180°E
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean, and the Arctic: Europe. tropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 4.0 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 1749)
Attached to hard substrata or loosely attached on sandy bottoms; from lower shore to depths of about 90 (Ref. 1603). Wharf piles, ships, etc. sea grass, sand or muddy substrates in large aggregates, to 30 m, in salinity 11 to over 20 parts/thousand (Ref. 1134). Members of the class Ascidiacea are hermaphroditic; both cross- and self-fertilization is typical. Life cycle: Eggs develop into lecithotrophic larva before metamorphosing into benthic adults (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Ascidiacea are hermaphroditic; both cross- and self-fertilization is typical. Life cycle: Eggs develop into lecithotrophic larva before metamorphosing into benthic adults.
de Kluijver, M.J. and S.S. Ingalsuo. 2006. (Ref. 1603)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)