Tentaculata | Lobata
Mutlu, E. 1999. (Ref. 1531)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 114265); common length : 1.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3033); max. published weight: 0.97 g (Ref. 3033)
Pelagic; depth range 5 - 200 m (Ref. 1531)
Climate / Range
Subtropical; 1°C - 32°C (Ref. 2982); 40°N - 46°S, 98°W - 31°W
Asia-Inland Water, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Polymorphic species, with Baltic Sea individuals smaller and adults do not have very long oral lobes unlike the Black Sea individuals (Ref. 2959). Inner structures of the lobes originate at the level of the apical organ near the top of the organism. Has eight meridianal canals (Ref. 2956). Confused with the dominant ctenophore in the North Sea, Bolinopsis infundibulum due to their similarities in appearance.
Found in marine and brackish waters (Ref. 770). A carnivorous hunter which feeds on zooplankton, including meroplankton, fish eggs and fish larvae (Ref. 2969). Known to tolerate a wide range of salinity (3.4 to 75.0 parts per mille) and temperature (1.3 to 32°C) from its native range in the American region. A simultaneous hermaphrodite with direct development. Sexual reproduction begins at 3 cm length for U.S. waters species and 1 cm oral-aboral length for Black Sea species. Larvae is spherical (cydippid) and hatch in 20 to 24 hours. Develops from tentaculate to lobate feeding mechanism as it matures. Egg production is sensitive to ctenophore size, food availability and temperature. In Chesapeake Bay, USA, egg production occurred at temperatures 11.8 to 29 °C and salinities 5.6 to 29.8 parts per mille. Weight-specific egg production was greater in summer due to higher temperature, salinity and prey density than in spring. Spawning in this area peaks between 2:00 and 4:00 h. In the Black Sea, spawning begins at midnight to 2:00 h. No spawning in spring at 8 to 16 °C, intensive spawning in late summer to autumn at temperature 23 °C (Ref. 3073).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)