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Mirounga leonina   (Linnaeus, 1758)

southern elephant seal
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Mirounga leonina
Juvenile picture by Ryan, Paddy

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Mammalia | Carnivora | Phocidae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 8000 m (Ref. 1394), usually 1000 - 5000 m.  Polar; 0°N - 90°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic: Circumpolar in the Southern Hemisphere, Skeleton coast of Namibia around the Cape to Ilha Bazaruto in Mozambique. Polar, temperate.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 685 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 99323); 300 cm TL (female); max. published weight: 5.0 t (Ref. 99323); max. published weight: 5.0 t

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Prefers sandy and cobble beaches, but will haul out on ice, snow or rocky terrace); they venture inland into tussock grass and other vegetation, and frequently lie in mud wallows. Feeds on 75% cephalopods and 25% fish. Maximum measurements for female species based from Ref. 1394. Reported from 0 m- m (Ref. 1394) but is observed to occur at greater depths based on more recent data (Kaschner, K. pers. comm., 20/10/14). Prefers sandy and cobble beaches, but will haul out on ice, snow or rocky terraces; they venture inland into tussock grass and other vegetation, and frequently lie in mud wallows. Feeds on 75% cephalopods and 25% fish (Ref. 1394).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

More information

Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: species profile; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown