Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 420 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 99323); max. published weight: 495.0 kg (Ref. 99323)
Pelagic; depth range ? - 1981 m (Ref. 2987), usually 200 - 600 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Polar; 33°S - 78°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 275)
Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans: circumpolar, south of Antarctic Convergence, occasionally north in cold waters off South Africa.
Maximum mantle length: 2.5 m. Maximum total length: exceeds 4.0 m. Mantle length at first maturity: greater than 1.0 m (weight: 25 to 30 kg). Passive swimmer. Feeds on mesopelagic fishes (Myctophidae, Paralepididae), squids (Ref. 275). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of potential interest
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Very high vulnerability (90 of 100)