Echinoidea | Spatangoida
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés. 2005. (Ref. 415)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 2 - 200 m (Ref. 415), usually 7 - ? m (Ref. 86574)
Climate / Range
Western Central Atlantic: Belize, Costa Rica and Panama; throughout the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean.
Minimum depth from Ref. 83942. This is an epibenthic species found in coral reefs and seagrass areas with soft bottoms (Ref. 83942), coarse sand and shell hash to depth 200 m (Ref. 415), and Thalassia beds (Ref. 86574). Feeds on sandy substrate (Ref. 111334). Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models