Aves | Ciconiiformes
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 66.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); max. published weight: 5.5 kg (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Temperate; 30°S - 50°S, 160°E - 175°W
Southwest Pacific: Endemic to New Zealand.
Total breeding population is 1,410 to 1,770 pairs, while individually itâ€™s a total of 4,028 to 5,057 birds. They are threatened by habitat clearance, fires, and trampling of nests. Eggs and chicks are predated on by dogs, cats, pigs and stoats (Ref. 84934). This is a shy and timid species, where individuals or small groups are found at sea. They nest singly or in loose colonies in temperate forests or on grassy coastal cliffs (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356). Breeds under coastal vegetation or among roots (Ref. 84934).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models