Polychaeta | Canalipalpata
Hill, M., R. Baker, G. Broad, P.J. Chandler, G.H. Coop, J. Ellis, D. Jones, C. Hoyland, I. Laing, M. Longshaw, N. Moore, D. Parrott, D. Pearman, C. Preston, R.M. Smith and R. Waters. 2005. (Ref. 1314)
Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic.
Found in littoral and sublittoral sediments (Ref. 1314). An infaunal species in sandy substrate, commonly on Zostera beds (Ref. 95819). In the Vainameri, north-eastern Baltic Sea, inhabits rocky, silty sand and clay sediment types (Ref. 95753), and under Furcellaria lumbricalis mats (Ref. 95891). An opportunistic species linked to the reduced survival of native benthic species in the Baltic Sea (Ref. 95891). Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models