Anthozoa | Scleractinia
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés. 2005. (Ref. 415)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; depth range 0 - 65 m (Ref. 848)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 33°N - 8°N, 92°W - 58°W (Ref. 848)
Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean to Bermuda.
Colony: either free-living with cone-shaped undersurface, or attached. Small colonies: oval shaped, with a central axial valley with short side valleys. Larger colonies: hemispherical, meandroid. With distinct ambulacral groove along the tops of valley walls (Ref. 848).
Maximum depth from Ref. 83917. Small and free-living colonies in subtidal seagrass beds; attached and hemispherical in shallow reef environments (Ref. 848). Also common in sand and coral rubble (Ref. 415) Hermaphroditic (Ref. 113712). Mature gametes are shed into the coelenteron and spawned through the mouth. Life cycle: The zygote develops into a planktonic planula larva. Metamorphosis begins with early morphogenesis of tentacles, septa and pharynx before larval settlement on the aboral end (Ref. 833). Peak during spring (Ref. 113712).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models