Bivalvia | Arcoida
Environment / Climate / Range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 68 m (Ref. 104365). Tropical, preferred 25°C (Ref. 107945); 43°N - 35°S, 91°W - 33°W (Ref. 3446)
Western Atlantic: from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to the West Indies and Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 7.6 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 78146)
Equivalved, oval in shape. Size range: 2.8-7.6 cm shell length. Shell length to height ratio = 1.16 (Ref. 78148). Shell depth reaching 70% of height (Ref. 78152).
In the USA, this species remains a potential fishery resource. From the late 1990s to early 2000s, wild stocks of this species are the target of a small-scale fishery in North Carolina (Ref. 78154) and the eastern coast of Virginia with exports primarily as ethnic food to Chicago, New York, Los Angeles and Washington D.C. (Ref. 78152). Occurs at depths ranging from the low-tide line to 3 m (Ref. 78147). Found in an estuarine environment (Ref. 104365). Found in most soft bottoms but prefers fine sand (Ref. 78148). Is a suspension feeder, discreetly motile while feeding with its ctenidia, i.e., the comb-like structure functioning as gill in bivalve mollusks (Ref. 78149). In general, suspension feeding bivalves mainly depend on phytoplankton and detritus material for nutrition (Ref. 107088). Sexes are separate with low incidence of hermaphrodism (2.17%). Males dominant (m/f=2.68). Peak in gonadal pattern in late spring to early summer (45% ripe in May) and a minor peak in winter (21% ripe in December). Dribble spawning likely strategy to extend spawning period and increase reproductive success (Ref. 78155). Largest coordinated spawning effort in June (50% partially spent gonads) and July (64.2% partially spent gonads). Mean monthly G.I. = 0.67 significantly correlated with mean water salinity levels (t=-2.07, df=11, alpha=0.05). Low incidence of parasitic infection by digenetic trematodes (3.33%) results in castration (Ref. 78155).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sexes are separate with low incidence of hermaphrodism (2.17%). Males dominant (m/f=2.68). Peak in gonadal pattern in late spring to early summer (45% ripe in May) and a minor peak in winter (21% ripe in December). Dribble spawning likely strategy to extend spawning period and increase reproductive success.
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquaculture: experimental
FAO(fisheries: production) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100)