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Loligo vulgaris   Lamarck, 1798

European squid
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Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Cephalopoda | Teuthida | Loliginidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Piatkowski, U. 2006. (Ref. 2488)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 42.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 417); 32 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 1.5 kg (Ref. 275)


Benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 500 m (Ref. 275), usually 20 - 250 m (Ref. 275)

Climate / Range

Temperate; 13°C - 20°C (Ref. 2453), preferred 18°C (Ref. 107945); 14°S - 38°S, 8°E - 35°E

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Atlantic and the Mediterranean: from North Sea and British Isles to southwest Africa and the Mediterranean.

Short description

Paralarvae: Fins paddle-shaped, broad with short bases, fin much wider than long. Mantle broad with few large dorsal chromatophores and numerous ventral chromatophores. Head squarish with few chromatophores on dorsal surface and 12 chromatophores on ventral surface arranged in 2 cheek patches of 5 posterior to eyes and a pair between the eyes. Ventral arms with 2 aboral chromatophores. Tentacles with 4 aboral chromatophores. Tentacular clubs broad and wider than tentacular stalks. Mantle length at hatching range between mantle length 0.28 and 0.358 cm (Ref. 2489, 2490). Juveniles and adults: Mantle muscular, cylindrical, slender and elongated posteriorly. Wide spots of red chromatophores in mantle and green/blue iridescence in posterior part of mantle. Fins rhomboid with length exceeding 50% of mantle length. Buccal membrane with 15 suckers with chitinous rings on extremity. Male's left ventral arm hectocotylized with length ranging from 15 to 33% of whole arm length. Arms with 2 rows of suckers, sucker rings with 20 teeth, distal ones large and pointed and proximal ones minute or absent. Tentacles not retractile and tentacular clubs with 4 longitudinal rows of suckers in the "manus", which in central rows are larger than marginal ones. Cartilages simple locking (Ref. 275, 1964).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Maximum life span: 1.5 to 2 years in females and 3 to 3.5 years in males (Ref. 2525). Neither pelagic nor fully benthic. Inhabits circumlittoral zone and upper bottoms of bathyal systems (Ref. 2504). Exhibits benthic behavior during spawning season and pelagic behavior at other times, e.g., during hunting (Ref. 2493). Carnivorous predators (Ref. 2526); juvenile feeds on planktonic prey, e.g. copepods, mysids and euphausiids (Ref. 2525) while adult frequently feeds on fish (Ref. 2526) and sometimes on cephalopods and crustaceans. Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)


CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: ; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low vulnerability (19 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)