Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 90.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 41 cm ML (female)
Demersal; depth range 100 - 400 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred 24°C (Ref. 107945); 61°N - 28°S, 21°W - 47°E (Ref. 275)
Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Western Indian Ocean: 20°N to 60°N, west African coast south to the Canary Islands and the Red Sea except Baltic Sea. Subtropical to temperate waters.
Caught with very small boats, using jigs in daytime at depths of 80 to 100 m (Ref. 2760). Occurs in tropical and subtropical climates (Ref. 275). Found In inshore waters over rocky ground at the start of the season and on sandy or muddy bottom later in the season (Ref. 106900). Feeds on small, juvenile fishes, other cephalopods, crustaceans, polychaetes (Ref. 275). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
High vulnerability (56 of 100)