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Littorina littorea   (Linnaeus, 1758)

common periwinkle
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Image of Littorina littorea (common periwinkle)
Picture by FAO

Classification
Gastropoda | Neotaenioglossa | Littorinidae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Main reference
Healy, B. 1997. (Ref. 2779)
References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 4.2 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83435); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 2823)

Environment
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 83435)

Climate / Range
Temperate, preferred 11°C (Ref. 107945); 71°N - 30°N, 41°W - 39°E (Ref. 83435)

Distribution
Northeast Atlantic: from west Greenland to Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea, down to Portugal. Said to occur in the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene with records up to the Persian Gulf. Distribution in Iceland possibly true due to its occurrence up to west Greenland.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in intertidal and subtidal flats (Refs. 2823, 106899). In shallow and deep subtidal mussel beds of Mytilus edulis. Occurs in both hard substrates and in soft bottoms, particularly on stones, boulders, on muddy and sandy tidal flats. Also macrophytes such as Fucus and Zostera spp. Herbivorous grazer, feeding on microalgal films (diatoms) from the shell surfaces of mussels, sporelings of ephemeral algae and young barnacles (Ref. 106899). Broadcast spawner (Ref. 99688).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

   

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans




Human uses
Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us |

Internet sources
BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: ; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Price category (Ref. 80766)
Medium