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Littorina littorea   (Linnaeus, 1758)

common periwinkle
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Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Gastropoda | Neotaenioglossa | Littorinidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Healy, B. 1997. (Ref. 2779)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 4.2 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83435); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 2823)


Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 60 m (Ref. 83435)

Climate / Range

Temperate, preferred 11°C (Ref. 107945); 71°N - 30°N, 41°W - 39°E (Ref. 83435)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Northeast Atlantic: from west Greenland to Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea, down to Portugal. Said to occur in the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene with records up to the Persian Gulf. Distribution in Iceland possibly true due to its occurrence up to west Greenland.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in intertidal and subtidal flats (Refs. 2823, 106899). In shallow and deep subtidal mussel beds of Mytilus edulis. Occurs in both hard substrates and in soft bottoms, particularly on stones, boulders, on muddy and sandy tidal flats. Also macrophytes such as Fucus and Zostera spp. Herbivorous grazer, feeding on microalgal films (diatoms) from the shell surfaces of mussels, sporelings of ephemeral algae and young barnacles (Ref. 106899). Broadcast spawner (Ref. 99688).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)


CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(fisheries: ; publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | Sea Around Us | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Price category (Ref. 80766)