Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 25.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142)
Bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 1200 m (Ref. 97142)
Climate / Range
Circumglobal, tropical to subtropical waters.
Circumglobal in tropical and subtropical waters, recorded from 50°N to about 35°S, generally bounded by the north and south subtropical convergences. Epipelagic to upper mesopelagic vertical distribution of paralarvae and juveniles, while adults occur at lower epipelagic, mesopelagic and bathypelagic depths; surface to 1,200 m. At least in Hawaiian waters, this species appears to be a strong vertical migrator, probably a component of the mesopelagic boundary fauna where it is most common over bottom depths of 700 m or less, rather than in deeper offshore waters (Ref. 97142). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models