Maxillopoda | Pedunculata
Young, P.S. 1998. (Ref. 3549)
Size / Weight / Age
Sessile; depth range 0 - 75 m (Ref. 105990)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 81°N - 57°S, 179°W - 180°E
Circumglobal (76Â°N to 57Â°S): Indian Ocean, Europe, California to Panama, Japan, Philippines, Australia , North America, northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil and Argentina.
Found on buoys and floating objects (Refs. 2767, 7484, 85157) and grows on cork lifebelt (Ref. 3534). Also on keel of ships and driftwood. Known as a fouling species (Ref. 81749). Nonselective filter feeder; opportunistically ingests an array of zooplankton and fills its gut with sand when stranded on the beach. Readily ingest large prey up to 5 mm in diameter (Ref. 106994). Members of the superorder Thoracica are mostly hermaphroditic. Broadcast spawners, fertilization occurs in the mantle cavity. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into planktonic nauplii and leave the mantle cavity. Afterwards, they undergo six naupliar instars succeded by nonfeeding cypris larva (settling stage) which later metamorphose into adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models