Aves | Ciconiiformes
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 36.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 212.00 g (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Western Central Atlantic and Northeast Pacific:
Culmen: 2.99 cm; tarsus: 3.175 cm; wing: 26.3 cm.
Total Length: 18 to 21 cm; Wingspan: 30 to 33 cm (Ref. 8812). Surface seizing; dipping; coastal (Ref. 356). A surface nester, usually builds nest in trees. One of the few species that nest and forage in inland habitats, and move to the coast during non-breeding season. Colonial; distance between pairs may be >100m but nest sites still clumped with many other suitable nesting areas unutilized. Vulnerable to oil spill as a piscivore; saw 50% decline in population from 1989 in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Ref. 87784).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100)