Aves | Ciconiiformes
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 77.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
North Pacific Ocean, Arctic Canada, North Atlantic, Pacific Asia.
Culmen: 6.26 cm; tarsus: 7.41 cm; wing: 45.9 cm.
Total Length: 66 to 77 cm; Wingspan: 132 to 142 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal; scavenger; kleptoparasitism; (Ref. 356). Prey on cliff-nesting colonial seabirds, usually within a limited area within the whole colony and on locations that are disadvantageous for the colonial birds to defend such as on broad ledges or sloping cliffs. Vulnerable to pollution because of their foraging, prey, or nesting habit near shore, close to industrial or agricultural pollutants (Ref. 87784).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate to high vulnerability (51 of 100)