Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Eastern Pacific and Western Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 640.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.37 cm; wing: 34.7 cm.
Total Length: 46 to 53 cm; Wingspan: 117 to 124 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal; <50km (Ref. 356). Use various behavioral methods to thermoregulate such as neck extension, panting and gaping, elevation of feathers and/or scapulars, feather fluffing, beak tucking under scapular, wing drooping, tail tilting, etc. Egg neglect, while parents forage, was observed; eggs left at night run the risk of chilling causing the embryo's heart to stop beating (Ref. 87784). Displays surface-plunging and dipping (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 9.1 - 12.1, mean 10.3 (based on 156 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100)