Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Northern Pacific, Northern Atlantic, Mediterranean and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 64.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 863.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.26 cm; tarsus: 6.35 cm; wing: 41.2 cm.
Total Length: 58 to 64 cm; Wingspan: 125 to 130 cm (Ref. 8812). Found on beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). Dipping; surface plunging; coastal (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.3 - 11.7, mean 8.9 (based on 331 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100)