Aves | Ciconiiformes | Laridae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94965); max. published weight: 1.0 kg (Ref. 356)
Others; freshwater; brackish
Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean. Tropical to polar.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Culmen: 5.76 cm; wing: 42.3 cm.
Total Length: 61 to 68 cm; Wingspan: 132 to 137 cm (Ref. 8812). Occupies the continental shelf; <300 km (Ref. 356). Ground nesting species. Nests on grassy areas or slopes. When spotting threat, adults give out alarm calls to warn chicks who respond by moving to a nearby hiding place (Ref. 87784). Displays dipping and surface-plunging behavior (Ref. 356). Laying of third egg which is variably smaller than the first two eggs in the same clutch is correlated to the facilitation of brood reduction (when beneficial) and sex-biased investment decisions, i.e., hormonally-mediated female reproductive recrudescence (Ref. 95045).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate to high vulnerability (47 of 100)