Aves | Ciconiiformes | Laridae
Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 471.00 g (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean: Belize, Costa Rica and Netherlands Antilles.
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Culmen: 4.24 cm; tarsus: 5.08 cm; wing: 37.7 cm.
Total Length: 45 to 53 cm; Wingspan: 121 to 127 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal; <31 km (Ref. 356). One of the few species that nest and forage in inland habitats, and move to the coast during non-breeding season. Nest of simple construction. Embryos are exceptionally known to elicit parental incubation behavior by vocalizing. Regurgitated pellets cast by adults to feed its cheeks during the nestling period contain mostly earthworms or fish (Ref. 87784). Display dipping and surface plunging (Ref. 356).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate vulnerability (41 of 100)