Aves | Ciconiiformes
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 404.00 g (Ref. 356)
Others; freshwater; brackish
Climate / Range
Northeast Pacific and the Mediterranean.
Culmen: 3.54 cm; wing: 35.1 cm.
Total Length: 40 to 46 cm; Wingspan: 119 to 122 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal. Displays dipping behavior. Exhibits kleptoparasitism (Ref. 356). Yolk formation takes 5 to 8 days. Reported rearing of two broods in a breeding season. Fostering behavior where foster parents and foster chicks are closely related. Decline in population as an adverse effect of the introduction of American mink (Mustela vison) in the United Kingdom (Ref. 87784).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100)