Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 289.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.02 cm; tarsus: 5.08 cm; wing: 32.1 cm.
Total Length: 38 to 43 cm; Wingspan: 99 to 107 cm (Ref. 8812). Dipping; surface plunging; coastal; <60 km (Ref. 356). Found on bay and nearshore, beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Stiles, F.G. 1984. (Ref. 5856)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)