Polychaeta | Canalipalpata
Gusso, C.C., M.F. Gravina and F.R. Maggiore. 2001. (Ref. 2780)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7882)
Sessile; brackish; depth range 0 - 380 m (Ref. 107994)
Climate / Range
Indo-West Pacific, Northeast Atlantic, and the Mediterranean.
Species' maximum length from the Belgian part of the North Sea (Ref. 7882). Inhabits the near-coastal zone often in substrate of fine sediment (Ref. 7882), sandy bottoms (Ref. 2780) and in rich muddy areas (Ref. 96352). Found in areas influenced by estuarine outflows (Ref. 96507). Lives upside down in a sand tube buried in the sediment (Ref. 7882). Known as a head-down/subsurface deposit feeder (Refs. 96214, 96292, 96498, 96501). A microvore that feeds on organic detritus (Ref. 96352). Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models