Migotto, A.E., A.C. Marques, A.C. Morandini and F.L. da Silveira. 2002. (Ref. 813)
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Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Nodular gonadal lobes erect, on oral surface, with broad adhesive pad-like organ on the arm tips and without an axial canal. Calyx about 15 mm maximum diameter, divided into 4 pairs of arms, resembling a cross, which is broadest near the center. Four broadly curved u-shaped perradial notches, 2x deep as the u- or v-shaped interradial notches. Arms with 6-25 short hollow capitate secondary tentacles on oral side near tip. Number and size of tentacles increase with calyx size (3 mm diameter, 9-11 tentacles; 12 mm diameter, 15-18 tentacles). Capitate ends of tentacles composed of adhesive cells. No cnidoblasts. Primary tentacles lacking in large individuals. Aboral surface smooth, without ridges or grooves, covered with numerous evenly scattered nematocyst warts. Mesoglea of aboral wall thick and less transparent than membranous oral wall. Oral surface smooth and easily folded. Numerous disc-shaped white spots on oral surface near gonads, mouth and calyx margin, i.e., vesicles, which are filled with numerous eurytele nematocysts. Manubrium short and cruciform, lips highly pleated. Pylorus of coelenteron with many (about 200) short gastric cirri. Interradial septa extend from pylorus to margin, allowing 4 radial pockets to communicate. Gonads arranged in 8 sinuous adradial bands of closely packed follicles extending from the pyloric region to the tentacles.
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models