Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Slightly narrowed trunk, anteriorly and posteriorly. First trunk segment with 5 looped ridges on either side of tergal plate midline. Margins of episternal and misternal plates with 2 thin cuticular areas. Segment 11 lateral margin extended posteriorly. Short penultimate segment, expanded and distended laterally forming a round margin. Terminal segment with spinose lateral extensions of the margins. Distinct cuticular fringe pattern near segment 4 sternal plates midline. Series of 1 to 3 parallel cuticular ridges mesially extended from lateral margins of sternal plates 4 to 12. Males with 2 or 3 pairs of penile spines at the anterolateral margins of terminal sternal plates, adhesive tubes on segment 4 sternal plates, and some minor variation in dorsolateral setae position (Ref. 1409).
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models