Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Atlantic Ocean: in the Caribbean (Cuba); Indian Ocean: in Southern Kenya, east to Indonesia; Pacific Ocean: from China to the South China Sea, south to Indonesia, east to Hawaiian Islands including Federated States of Micronesia and Fiji, and south to Tahiti (Ref. 80701); transported to Hawaii, where it was successfully grown, and thence to island groups of the western Pacific, such as, Guam, Micronesia, Christmas Island, Fanning, Tarawa and other atolls of Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga, and French Oceania. It has been transported to Southern China, Indonesia and also to Southern Africa (Ref. 80758).
Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions
Thalli erect, loosely branched, robust, cartilaginous and range from dark greenish brown to deep purple in colour. Main axes cylindrical throughout, 1.5 to 6 mm in diameter when dried. Lateral ultimate branches arranged secundly to alternately on the axes; they are terete, attenuated to acute or spinose tips varying in length from 1 to 17 mm and 1 to 2 mm in diameter near their bases. Cross-section of a branch shows a medulla composed of small thick-walled cells interspersed among large parenchymatous cells at the centre. Cortical cells very small. Thalli up to 30 cm in height (Ref. 80758).
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models